ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION AND CARBON CREDITS, A SOLUTION FOR A "MEA CULPA"
Matter transcribed in full, aptly shows the purpose of obtaining carbon credits and the means by which one can do it.
"What Are Carbon Credits?
Carbon credits are certificates that authorize the right to pollute. The principle is simple. The environmental protection regulatory agencies issue certificates authorizing emissions of tons of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and other gaseous pollutants. Initially, select up more industries that pollute the country and thereafter are set targets to reduce their emissions.
The companies receive bonus negotiable in proportion to their responsibilities. Each warrant, priced in dollars, equivalent to one ton of pollutants. Who does not meet the reduction targets established by progressive law, has to buy certificates of most successful companies.
The system has the advantage of allowing each company sets its own pace of adaptation to environmental laws. These certificates can be traded through the Stock Exchanges and Commodities, such as the Clean Air, 1970, and contracts in U.S. purse (Emission Trading - Joint Implementation).
There are several companies specializing in the development of projects that reduce the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and in trading of emission certificates of gas around the world, preparing to sell shares of underdeveloped and developing countries, which generally emit fewer pollutants for the most polluting.
Anyway, prepare to negotiate contracts for purchase and sale of certificates that give developed countries the right to pollute.
According to Sergio Besserman Vianna - President of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE)? Global warming is an undeniable reality. If it is not treated by the financial market, some other mechanism must be created to do so?, Told the Folha de Sao Paulo.
In turn, Eduardo Viola, Chairman of the Department of International Relations and Centre for Sustainable Development of UNB analyzes:
It is clear today that we need to protect the environment go beyond the rigid mechanisms of command and control that predominated in the world in the last 30 years. The creation of market mechanisms to value natural resources is an extraordinary innovation whose first instance occurred in the U.S. with the 1990 amendment to the Clean Air 1970. Because of this Amendment 1990, which created tradable pollution quotas basins U.S. regional airlines, air pollution has decreased at an average of 40% in the U.S. between 1991 and 1998.
Several initiatives, following the same principle, are in the process of being adopted in many countries and internationally (the 1997 Kyoto Protocol establishes quotas tradable carbon emissions between Annex 1 countries and the Clean Development Mechanism between developed countries on one side and middle and poor on the other).
The volumes of the Carbon Market estimates have the most varied, and most of the articles published in the press, do not beat the indexes. Each indicates a different data source, ranging from $ 500 million to U.S. $ 80 billion per year - investment analysts consider the volume estimated by experts insignificant compared to some industries that revolve equivalent volumes in a month. What can there is a strong demand for industrial countries and a future expectation that this will be a market? Big deal?, A source of investment, from the point of view strictly financier. In this case, Brazil's position is strategic, depending on a number of considerations presented below.
What is the position of Brazil? It turns out that in the case of Brazil, but also in Africa, is a series of required certifications and endorsements in terms of credit risk, for all matters of credibility: the call? Brazil Risk?.
Brazil is not considered in the international market a good payer. There have been scandals that serious investors spooked by attracting investments to the country very short-term, speculative capital and volatile, and so-called sniffer Cayman Islands, who worship business? Fuzzy? to anchor the operations of money laundering. All this goes into the accounts of international loans, and the risk you run is to happen to the cash rate low or get lost in the background of small hand with extremely high rates.
One should not forget also that individual's vulnerability in the face of complex contracts, dubious projects and pressures speculators interested in buying land below market price to be accredited by these investments. There are major differences between the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) and environmental commodities. The CDMs, or Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs), in summary, are alternatives that imply taking responsibility to reduce emissions and promote sustainable development. This is an investment mechanism, by which developed countries can set goals to reduce emissions and use of financial resources in projects like reforestation and clean energy production.
Companies, for example, instead of using fossil fuels that are highly polluting, would use the energy produced in sustainable conditions, such as biomass. There is, finally, a huge range of environmental projects and financial engineering operations that can be developed in Brazil, owner of seven environmental matrices (water, energy, biodiversity, timber, ore, recycling and control of pollutant emissions - water, soil and air).
Not every CDM project generates necessarily? Traditional commodity? much less one? environmental commodity?.
Let me explain: The exchange of credits between developed quotas, which set limits? Rights to pollute? (Joint implemetation and Emission Trading), can be transformed into marketable securities on OTC markets (contracts drawer - side letters) or in organized markets (Handbags, Interbank, Intergovernmental and others). But calling pollution merchandise is absurd concept, and? Environmental commodity?, Is a contradiction.
Firstly, the pollution can not be considered good, even more when it is desired to eliminate it. Second, small farmers will not be those contemplated in this exchange because it is held between large national and transnational corporations.
Moreover, you can only make such exchanges in a globalized market strongly, as these titles will migrate from one country to another with the same speed that migrate globalized investment in a limited class of more or less developed countries, which goes against all claims of the World Social Forum held in Rio Grande do Sul
If on one hand the environmental commodities have as its main distinguishing the pyramid model, in which those contemplated by the funds must be directly excluded, the emission trading (buying and selling of carbon credits) meets the traditional model of financial transactions that we all already know we are tired of. He just repeats a mechanism already explored, with the aggravating circumstance of being misleading, bringing the environmental argument and causing confusion conceptualization.
But the CDM can and should be applied to the concept? Environmental commodities?, Observed two conditions: if the project control pollutant emissions are generating a commodity such as energy (biomass), wood, biodiversity, water, mining, recycling, and if the model were to promote the generation of employment and income and fund education, health, research and preservation of protected areas. In other words, it must also meet the demands of the environmental movement and human rights groups, engaged in this thankless struggle to preserve the environment. In this sense, a reforestation project with pine and eucalyptus can not invade an area like the Amazon, although the scientific community comes with all the means that pine and eucalyptus capture more carbon than a native forest.
Two edged knife Then see the difference. No matter for? Environmental commodities? which captures more carbon. It, however, which creates more jobs and keeps more conservation areas. The model? Environmental commodities? it proposes to discuss is exactly produce a lock that prevents an ecosystem is harmed to promote the commercial exploitation of the other. The marketing of the rich countries, promising money to environmental projects in poor countries, can be a double-edged sword for the environment.
There is a risk of carbon certificates are processed only in a financial transaction to give profits to its investors and end up not generating any benefit to the environment. That is, if the economic instruments are a promise of carbon capture in the future.
As it happened, for example, often in the case of forestry incentives, when many people borrowed money to plant subsidized by the Government, but not planted or given money to plant acres, just finished planting 200 hectares.
In these cases, the locks to protect themselves from malicious speculators are being coordinated with the production system of environmental commodities.
There is always that risk when dealing with financial markets. One day after another, it creates complex contracts with clauses and phrases in English quite often hiding business interests abroad.
If that's often difficult for specialists to understand what will be said of the small producer or owner of a forest area that want to make their forest a project with economic viability and must satisfy the conservation laws, codes and other forest requirements. We are aware that certification is one way, but not the solution, because for sure the product is to be produced under sustainable conditions, which requires investment.
All this is expensive and takes time and money.
What happens today is unfair competition with high interest rates. Any long-term business in Brazil becomes incompatible with the profits that the financial guarantee bonds, without having to worry about rain, investments in production, planting, harvesting, paying employees. This explains why, instead of being applied directly in production, subsidized money migrates to financial speculation.
But this only happens with the participation of agents that are not productive activity, because the producer himself, who even knows how to capture the resource for their crop, knows neither act in the market.
He often has his Individual Registration (CPF) or the National Register of Legal Entities (CNPJ) used in the cooperative operations of money laundering.
And when they break, undermine the credibility of all: see the Cooperative Agricultural Cotia and, more recently, the case of Export of Brazilian Cooperatives (EXIMCOOP). No need to go far - now there are the scandals that revolted capital markets in 2002 and played the stock market floor.
The crisis in the stock market has been compared to the collapses caused by the crash of 1929 and the oil crises in 1973 and 1974.
Carbon Credits, if poorly designed and launched in the market in the rush of euphoria, only to meet an expectation of capturing international investment, can mask the action of many? Opportunistic bargaining?.
When deploying the BECE Regional Forums (Brazilian Commodities Exchange Environment) Project in CTA, we are trying to find ways to solve the problem. Eliminate the risk is impossible, a utopia.
But it can be mitigated by identifying who really deserves to be receiving this money, tracing with a strategy for community development and enforcement of environmental projects with commitment, so that producers and extractive communities obtain investment resources without passing through the hands of? ? hidden enemies?, clever in the art of misrepresenting environmental projects.
Therefore, we created a proposal? BECE? Genuinely Brazilian, because this is a problem in Brazil. You need to map the Brazilian real needs and do their homework and then also if you can adopt a more serious and make more concrete proposals in relations with the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) in the Kyoto Protocol, and others. Looking forward with courage and determination Brazilian problems, will arrive faster to solutions without getting wiping tears in sheets because? Traditional commodities? Brazil were excluded from international agreements.
Another crucial aspect of this debate is getting to small and cause they have the same opportunities for financing their projects, whether in education, health, environment or agriculture. You are, in short, speaking of economic reconstruction, and projects for the production of environmental commodities are potential solutions at a time when one is sick of only seeing problems.
The Project CTA (www.sindecon-esp.org.br) will the words of Eduardo Viola's mission BECE:
The 20th century taught us, with extreme joy and tragedy, as the market is the most efficient allocative mechanism invented by mankind.
It also taught us that a market without full rule of law and without educated individuals and self-reflective produces a highly materialistic society that locks the potentials of human evolution.
We need to move towards a transparent and consciously regulated society, where there is no room for privileged information, nor ad hoc clauses to favor some of the contestants, or possibilities of laundering proceeds of illicit activities. (...) I believe the BECE incisive deserves support from all of the environmental community that there will be urgently systematic studies economic, ecological and legal with the objective of its implementation. It could be a great contribution in Brazil started to sustainable development on a global scale.
With the proposed BECE and developing projects for the Economic and Financial Markets? Environmental Commodities?, Environmental preservation is being placed in the accounts as an asset / investment and not as a liability / injury, tried to change the vision of entrepreneurs and investors today in relation to the environmental issue.
Especially where the environmental commodities could help fight the fight against the greenhouse effect that is warming the planet and arguably causing huge losses to the worsening droughts, rains, storms. "
Amyra El Khalili Source: saf.cnpgc.embrapa.br ____________________________________________
Thursday, August 18, 2011
Demolição the viaduct 9 de Julho + Praça 14 Bis Vitalization
On Monday, August 15, the City of St. Paul received the project's architect Adriana Levinsky to revitalize the 14 Bis Square in downtown São Paulo. Under the bill, the Viaduct Dr. Plinio de Queiroz will be demolished and in its place will be built a tunnel. The works also predict improved drainage flooding, but no set budget, the proposal should be played by the next mayor of the city. See the full story published by the Folha de S. Paul:
Perspectiva de como ficará a área com a demolição do Viaduto Dr. Plínio de Queiroz e construção de túnel
Perspective of how the area will be the demolition of the Viaduct Dr. Plinio de Queiroz and construction of tunnel
The viaduct Dr. Plinio de Queiroz, 14 Bis of the square, in Bela Vista, Sao Paulo center, will be demolished. The elevated tracks will be replaced by a tunnel about 260 meters long.
Folha revealed in October 2009 that businessmen have suggested scrapping the mayor Gilberto Kassab (PSD). The idea came from Fecomercio-SP (Federation of Commerce of Sao Paulo) and other entities of Bela Vista.
Kassab then ordered the secretaries of Urban Development and Planning a study on the feasibility of demolition.
After the approval of the municipal bodies, the Bela Vista Social Network, a group that brings together businesses in the neighborhood, commissioned the architect to design Adriana Levinsky. The final proposal was presented yesterday at the headquarters of Fecomercio-SP.
Kassab not have time to do the work. According to him, no time even to begin implementation of the plan in his tenure, which ends in late 2012.
"I believe we can reach the stage of the bid prepared to leave the next administration can deploy it," said the mayor, even without having in hand the budget for the works.
The project also works to revitalize the plaza 14 Bis Avenue and Nine July in the stretch between downtown and Avenida Paulista in a total of about 2 km.
According to the mayor, you can do the revitalization, including the demolition of the viaduct and the new tunnel, together with the works to combat flooding planned for the region.
According to Kassab, there will be no bathtub-two were provided.
To stop the flooding, the new project includes the expansion of the galleries of Nine July.
With the completion of the works simultaneously, says the mayor, you can reduce the impact on traffic during the interventions